A Map of Armenia


Background: An Armenian Apostolic Christian country, Armenia was incorporated into Russia in 1828 and the USSR in 1920. Armenian leaders remain preoccupied by the long conflict with Azerbaijan over Nagorno-Karabakh, a primarily Armenian-populated region, assigned to Soviet Azerbaijan in the 1920s by Moscow. Armenia and Azerbaijan began fighting over the area in 1988; the struggle escalated after both countries attained independence from the Soviet Union in 1991. By May 1994, when a cease-fire took hold, Armenian forces held not only Nagorno-Karabakh but also a significant portion of Azerbaijan proper. The economies of both sides have been hurt by their inability to make substantial progress toward a peaceful resolution.
Location: Southwestern Asia, east of Turkey. Area: Total: 29,800 sq km water: 1,400 sq km land: 28,400 sq km. Area - comparative: Slightly smaller than Maryland. Land boundaries: Total: 1,254 km border countries: Azerbaijan-proper 566 km, Azerbaijan-Naxcivan exclave 221 km, Georgia 164 km, Iran 35 km, Turkey 268 km.
Climate and Terrain: Climate: Highland continental, hot summers, cold winters Terrain: Armenian Highland with mountains; little forest land; fast flowing rivers; good soil in Aras River valley Elevation extremes: Lowest point: Debed River 400 m highest point: Aragats Lerrnagagat' 4,090 m Natural resources: Small deposits of gold, copper, molybdenum, zinc, alumina
People: Population: 3,330,099 Ethnic groups: Armenian 93%, Azeri 3%, Russian 2%, other (mostly Yezidi Kurds) 2% (1989) Religions: Armenian Apostolic 94%, other Christian 4%, Yezidi (Zoroastrian/animist) 2%. Languages: Armenian 96%, Russian 2%, other 2%.
Government: Government type: Republic. Capital: Yerevan. Independence: 21 September 1991 (from Soviet Union).
Economy overview: Under the old Soviet central planning system, Armenia had developed a modern industrial sector, supplying machine tools, textiles, and other manufactured goods to sister republics in exchange for raw materials and energy. Since the implosion of the USSR in December 1991, Armenia has switched to small-scale agriculture away from the large agro-industrial complexes of the Soviet era. The agricultural sector has long-term needs for more investment and updated technology. Armenia is a food importer, and its mineral deposits (gold, bauxite) are small. GDP - composition by sector: Agriculture: 29% industry: 32% services: 39%.
Statistics: Telephones - main lines in use: 568,000 . Telephones - mobile cellular: 25,000. Radio broadcast stations: AM 9, FM 6. Radios: 850,000. Television broadcast stations: 3. Televisions: 825,000. Internet users: 30,000. Railways: Total: 852 . Highways: Total: 11,300 km paved: 10,500 km. unpaved: 800 Airports - with unpaved runways: 7.

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