A Map of Kazakhstan


Background: Native Kazakhs, a mix of Turkic and Mongol nomadic tribes who migrated into the region in the 13th century, were rarely united as a single nation. The area was conquered by Russia in the 18th century and Kazakhstan became a Soviet Republic in 1936. During the 1950s and 1960s Soviet citizens were encouraged to help cultivate Kazakhstan's northern pastures. This influx of immigrants skewed the ethnic mixture and enabled non-Kazakhs to outnumber natives. Independence has caused many of these newcomers to emigrate.
Location: Central Asia, northwest of China. Area: Total: 2,717,300 sq km land: 2,669,800 sq km water: 47,500 sq km. Area - comparative: Slightly less than four times the size of Texas. Land boundaries: Total: 12,012 km border countries: China 1,533 km, Kyrgyzstan 1,051 km, Russia 6,846 km, Turkmenistan 379 km, Uzbekistan 2,203 km.
Government: Government type: Republic. Capital: Astana.

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Climate and Terrain: Climate: Continental, cold winters and hot summers, arid and semiarid.
People: Population: 16,731,303. Ethnic groups: Kazakh 53.4%, Russian 30%, Ukrainian 3.7%, Uzbek 2.5%, German 2.4%, Uighur 1.4%, other 6.6%. Religions: Muslim 47%, Russian Orthodox 44%, Protestant 2%, other 7% Languages: Kazakh 40%, Russian 66% .
Economy overview: Kazakhstan possesses enormous fossil fuel reserves as well as plentiful supplies of other minerals and metals. It also is a large agricultural - livestock and grain - producer. Kazakhstan's industrial sector rests on the extraction and processing of these natural resources and also on a growing machine-building sector specializing in construction equipment, tractors, agricultural machinery, and some defense items. Labor force - by occupation: Industry 27%, agriculture 23%, services 50%.
Statistics: Telephones - 1.818 million. Telephones - mobile cellular: 11,202. Radio broadcast stations: AM 60, FM 17. Radios: 6.47 million. Television broadcast stations: 12. Televisions: 3.88 million. Internet users: 70,000. Railways: 13,601 km. Highways: 150,000 km. Airports: Paved 28, unpaved 421.